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    Luzhou has always been a hub of economic activities in the tri-province border area of Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou. Food, liquor, and chemicals production, along with construction equipment manufacturing are the most important industries of the local economy. Total GDP reached 33.11 billion yuan in 2006 (per capita 7,819 yuan).Liquor industrySite of the original Old CellarSite of the original Old CellarLuzhou Old Cellar and Langjiu are the two best known brands of Baijiu with national and international reputations .Luzhou is a center of liquor production, particularly baijiu, and two companies in particular are Luzhou Vintage and Gulin Langjiu. Over 200 liquor products are listed as national and provincial products with good market share in China and abroad.Machine construction industryLuzhou is a manufacturing center of hydraulic trucks, cranes and excavators in China. Among the cities along the Yangtze River, Luzhou is the second largest producer of hydraulic trucks, after Shanghai.Chemical industryThe chemical industry, particularly natural gas production, is also important to Luzhou's economy natural gas industry. At present, Luzhou has developed a national chemical industry system covering production, education, scientific research, design, machine and architecture. A group of national large scale enterprises have been established and achieved a globally advanced level. Lutianhua enterprise is the most extensive carbamide and oil chemical production base in China, producing fatty acid, fatty amine, synthetic ammonia, and carbamide. Its annual output of carbamide is 1.24 million tons and 0.9 million tons of synthetic ammonia. It is one of the 500 largest national enterprises. Tianhua Co, Ltd is a key enterprise which brings in 0.3 million tons of synthetic ammonia and 0.6 million tons of carbamide, processing two sets of chemical fertilizer devices with world technical levels. Luzhou Chemical Factory participates in military and civil chemical production. State-owned Torch Chemical Factory is the only producer of "801" . It gained the national quality golden award, surpassing the America Standard.Tourism industryDowntown LuzhouLuzhou is a tourist destination; specific scenic spots include Yuchan in Luxian county, Fobao in Hejiang county, Mt. Fangshan in Jiangyang county, the litchi and longan orchard along the Yangtze River and Tuojiang River, and many others. With the official approbation of the National Ministry of Forestry, Fobao Forest Park became a National Forestry Park and was classified as an “AAA” tourist attraction in 2001 by National Tourism Administration.Luzhou and Xuyong county have national cultural significance. The Wine Cellar of Luzhou Vintage constructed in Ming Dynasty and Dragon Head Bridge were listed as a key protected cultural relic of the state. There are more than ten protected historical relics in Sichuan Province, including the site of Red Army’s Four-time Crossing the Chishui River; the Taiping Ferry Museum this site was nominated the “National Demonstration base for patriotic education” by the central Propaganda Ministry in 2001.The Sci-tech Park of Luzhou Vintage is a national industry tourism demonstration spot and Luzhou Zhangba Longan Orchard is a national agricultural tourism spot. Other scenic areas nearby include Leshan, Yibin, Zigong and Chongqing, such as the Bamboo Forest, Mt. Simianshan in Chongqing and Sidong Channel in Guizhou Province.AgricultureLuzhou is a key comprehensive development zone in the upper Yangtze River and Sichuan province as well as an important production base of commodity rice, fruit such as litchi and longan, cured tobacco, poultry, tea, and traditional Chinese medicine ingredients.


    Luzhou has the largest river port in Sichuan on the upper Yangtze, with the capability to load and unload container ships. Expressways connecting to Chengdu and Chongqing were completed in the 1990s. Railroads and an airport provide additional links to several cities in China. The city has four bridges over the Yangtze which form part of Sichuan's overland corridor to the South China Sea.An expressway connecting Luzhou and Longchang is currently in place and another which is going to connect the city directly with Chongqing is under construction.Luzhou International Container Pier[edit]The Luzhou International Container Pier handled 4,505 containers in May 2007.Luzhou Airport[edit]Luzhou Lantian Airport was built in 1945 and initially provided an air route between China and India for the US Air Force during World War II. Services were suspended in the 1960s, but later it was used for training purposes by the Chinese Air Force. Major renovations and expansions were completed in January 2001, and now the airport serves direct flights to Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Kunming, Guiyang and Shenzhen.[4].


    Luzhou is situated in the southeast region of Sichuan province, at the intersection of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou and Chongqing, at longitude 105° 08' 41"E ~ 106° 28'E and latitude 27° 39' N ~ 29° 20'N. Covering an area of 12,246.87 square kilometres (4,728.54 sq mi), it is 121.64 kilometres (75.58 mi) wide from east to west and 181.84 kilometres (112.99 mi) long from south to north. A prefecture-level city of Sichuan with a registered population of 4.8 million, Luzhou is 267 km (166 mi) away from Chengdu, the provincial capital. It is adjacent to Chongqing in the east, borders Guizhou and Yunnan provinces in the south, Yibin City and Zizhong City in the west, Chongqing and Neijiang in the north. The city governs 7 administrative divisions, including 3 districts (Jiangyang, Longma, Naxi) and 4 counties (Lu, Hejiang, Xuyong, Gulin).Owing to its position in the southern peripheral area of Sichuan Basin and the connective region with Yunnan and Guizhou plateau, Luzhou is characterised by the river valleys, hills, and level lands in the north and highland, mountains, sheer valleys and rushing rivers in the south. Fishing and agriculture are the primary industries in the northern area and forest and mineral resources to the southern region respectively. The lowest part is 203 metres (666 ft), at the surface of Yangtze river in Jiucengyan, Hejiang county while the highest point is located at the peak of Liangzi mountain, Xuyong County, reaching 1,902 metres (6,240 ft). Luzhou is also a region covered by rivers. The Yangtze river flows through the whole area from west to east, covering a total course of 133 kilometres (83 mi), and the maximum flood level was 18.68 metres (61.3 ft) during the past 30 years. Other rivers converging here, such as Tuo River, Yongling River, Chishui River, and Laixi Rivers.Climate[edit]Luzhou has mild weatherLuzhou has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) and is largely mild, except during the summer, and humid, with four distinct seasons and ample rainfall: winters are short, mild, and comparatively dry, while summers are long, hot, and humid. Within the prefecture, annual mean temperatures range from 17.1 to 18.5 °C (62.8 to 65.3 °F). In the urban area, monthly daily average temperatures range from 7.6 °C (45.7 °F) in January to around 27 °C (80.6 °F) in July and August, with August being slightly warmer. The diurnal temperature variation is 6.1 °C (11.0 °F) and is lowest during winter. Snow is rare here. The annual precipitation in the prefecture ranges from 748.4 to 1,184.2 millimetres (29.46 to 46.62 in), 70% of which occurs from May to September. Sunshine is quite low, with only 1200 to 1400 hours per year, and the frost-free period is lengthy, lasting 300 to 358 days.


    Luzhou was incorporated into the Ba state early in the Shang and Zhou period, in the 11th century BC. In 316 BC, during the Warring States period, King Huiwen of Qin established Ba prefecture, which included most of Luzhou, after he conquered the states of Ba and Shu. The local economy and culture expanded as a result of the advanced production technique and culture introduced by immigrants from the rest of China. During the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 23), Jiangyang county was set up in what is the current Jiangyang district, at the confluence of the Tuo River and Yangtze River. The county was further expanded during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. As a result, Luzhou became the portal of the Tuojing River leading to western Sichuan, which brought great prosperity to salt-refinery and agriculture in the area.The Song Dynasty was an important period in Luzhou’s history. It was known as the natural granary of southern Sichuan as the wine-making and salt-refining industries expanded. The method to decoct salt with natural gas was discovered at that time, according to ancient literature. In addition, trade and business between Luzhou residents and ethnic groups was brisk and a protective wall as well as forts were constructed by the local government.In the Yuan Dynasty, Luzhou remained an important place for the wine-making, salt-refinery and tea-making industry and trade. A large number of wooden ships were made to further the shipping industry. During the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911), waves of immigrants from other parts of China brought rapid growth in economy and culture. Luzhou served as a political, economic, military and cultural center for the provinces of Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan.The People's Liberation Army took control of Luzhou on December 6, 1949 from the Kuomintang government, two months after the founding of the People's Republic of China. In 1960, Luzhou prefecture was created with five counties that had been part of Yibin prefecture. The prefecture was upgraded to the prefecture-level city of Luzhou in 1983. Nowadays, Luzhou is considered a center of the chemical, machinery, and wine-making industries.Panoramic view of downtown Luzhou (Jiangyang District) in 2008

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